14 September 2021

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GLOSSARY OF GENETIC TERMS

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Acquired CharactersThe alternation in the morphology of Physiology of an organism in response to it’s ecological factor that is known as Acquired Characters.

  • Albinism – Absence of colour in skin, hair and eyes. Absence of chloroplast in plants.
  • Allele (Alleleomorphs) – An allele is one among a pair of genes appear at a specific location on a specific chromosome and control a similar characteristics.
  • Autosome (Non-Sex Chromosome) – the chromosome which are not associated with sex.

Backcross – The cross of a progeny individual with its parents.

  • Barr Body (Sex Chromatin) – A densely staining inactivated condensed X chromosome that’s present in each somatic cell of most female mammals.
  • Carrier – When an organism that carry on a gene that doesn’t shown and might have a chance to pass on to their offspring.
  • Cistron – A segment of DNA or RNA that’s similar to a gene which specifies one function (such as protein/Enzyme).
  • Cloning – The process of making an identical copy of an organism or a cell.
  • Codominance – When both the alleles are equally express in the hybrid.
  • Criss-Cross Inheritance – Inheritance of sex linked characters transmitted from fathers to daughters or from mothers to sons.
  • Eg. – Haemophilia C
  • Cytoplasmic Inheritance (Extranuclear Inheritance) – Inheritance via genes from in cytoplasmic organelles.

Dominance – A phenomenon in which one member of a paid allele expressing it self as a whole unit or in a part.

  • Epistasis – The masking of the phenotypic effect of alleles at one gene by alleles of another gene.
  • Exon – The DNA sequence that code for Proteins.
  • Filial Generation – Successive generation progeny of control series of Crosses.

Genes – A specific segment of DNA that cause for biological active and structural, functional unit that is RNA and protein.

  • Gene interaction – The co-ordinated effect of one or more genes in producing given phenotypic trait called gene interaction.
  • Genome – A full set of chromosomes, all the inheritable traits of an organism.
  • Holandric Gene – A gene which occurs only in Y chromosome.
  • Eg. – Hairy pinna.
  • Hybrid – Hybrid, offspring of oldsters that differ in genetically determined traits.
  • Incomplete Dominance – The condition in which the phenotype of the heterozygous genotype is intermediate.
  • Intron – A sequence of nucleotide which does not appear in m-RNA.
  • Karyotype – the whole chromosome completely of an individual of a cell as a seal during metaphase.

Lethal gene – A gene whose phenotypic effect is sufficient to cause destructive effects to the bearer.

  • Linkage – The occurance of different gene of same chromosome they do not show random assortment at meiosis.
  • Maternal Inheritance – A type of uniparental inheritance in which phenotypic differences in progeny occurs due to factors such as chloroplast and mitochondria, that transmitted by female gamete.
  • Nondisjunction – The failure of homozygous chromosomes or sister chromatids during meiosis or mitosis to separate daughter nuclei to opposite poles.
  • Pedigree – A family tree drawn with a standard genetic provide inheritance pattern specific phenotypic characters.
  • Pleiotropy – The implusing of more than one traits by the single gene.
  • Punnett Square – It is a graphical representation of a an offspring’s possible genotypes.

Recessive allele – In heterozygous, it is unable to express its phenotypic effect.

  • Reciprocal Cross – A second cross of the same genotype in which sexes of parental generation are reverse.
  • Segregation – The separation of allelic gene into different gametes at meiosis.
  • Sex linkage – The location of gene on a sex chromosome.
  • Test Cross – The cross of an individual with one homozygous recessive phenotype that generally used to determine whether an individual dominant phenotype is homozygous or heterozygous or to determine the degree of linkage.
  • X-linked – Genes carried on the X chromosome.
  • Y-linked – Genes carried on the Y chromosome.

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